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. . .from Genealogy Trails

Historical Sketch of Thurston County

It is not necessary to the purposes of this brief historic sketch to detail the events connected with the early voyages of discovery to the Northwest, although they constituted the basis upon which Spain, Great Britain and the United States asserted claims to the Northwest Coast.

Russia claimed north of the 51st degree, with all adjacent islands; Spain claimed to the 55th degree by right of discovery; Great Britain asserted no exclusive right to particular portions of the coast, but maintained that the voyages of Drake, Cook. Meares and Vancouver to the coast; the overland voyages of Mackenzie and Thomson, followed by the formation of establishments within the territory "conferred a right of joint occupancy with other states, leaving the right of exclusive do minion in abeyance."

At the outset of the controversy the United States' claim was two-fold: First, in its own right, based upon the discovery of the Columbia river by Captain Gray; the exploration of that river by Lewis and Clark, followed by settlements by its citizens upon its banks. Upon the principal that the discovery of a river followed by acts of occupancy, secured A right to the territory such river drained, the United States asserted claim to the territory west of the Rocky Mountains lying between 42 and 51 degrees north, subject, however, to the rights of Spain of prior discoveries of islands and lauds upon the coast. Second, as successor to France.

By the Louisiana purchase of 1803, the United States acquired the right of continuity of the territory west of the Mississippi river to the Pacific Ocean, of the breadth of that: province, its north line being the boundary between the Hudson's Bay territory and the French provinces in Canada. Negotiations between the United States and Great Britain were commenced early in the century; the war of 1812 intervened; Astoria, captured during that war, had been restored. In 1818. the condition was slightly changed by the convention which permitted a joint occupancy of the territory by citizens and subjects of both nations, really a non-occupancy by the nations themselves, for they but agreed that they would not exclude the citizens of the other, nor gain any right or claim by virtue of the occupancy by their own citizens. On the 22nd of February, 1819, the United States, by the Florida treaty, acquired front Spain all that nation's rights to land upon the Pacific Coast north of 42nd degree north latitude. In 1824 and 1825 the United States and Great Britain had respectively concluded treaties with Russia by which 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude was established as the south boundary of Russian possessions on the Northwest Coast.

In 1827 the joint occupancy treaty was renewed, with the modification that either nation could abrogate it by giving twelve months' notice. The Oregon question continued to be agitated until June 15, 1846, the United States Senate advise; President Polk to accept the treaty of limits then offered. By that treaty 49 degrees north was fixed as the northern boundary. But the treaty of 1846 proved but a temporization, not a settlement. It yielded to Great Britain all of Vancouver Island, but was vague as to water boundaries. The indistinct recognition of the possessory rights of the Hudson Bay and Puget Sound Agricultural Companies, almost wholly in Washington, left much for controversy. In 1859, war was imminent, growing out of dispute as to sovereignty as to San Juan Island. This difficulty was temporized by a military joint occupancy A special treaty enabled the United States to secure by purchase the extinguishment of the possessory rights of the Hudson Bay Company and Puget Sound Agricultural Company. Not until 1872, by the award of the German Emperor, was the water boundary adjusted and the Oregon controversy finally settled.

What was known as the provisional government of Oregon was organized in July, 1845, and all that country north of the Columbia River formed a single County known as Vancouver District. Sir James Douglas, M. T. Simmons and John Forrest were the first County Commissioners. Douglas was connected with the Hudson Bay Company and Simmons came into the country in the year 1844, with a company from Missouri.

Lewis County was organized in 1846, and embraced all the territory lying north of the Columbia river and west of the Cowlitz River. Dr. W. T. Tommie, of Nisqually, was elected the first representative.

In April, 1845, at Washougal, Mrs. M. T. Simmons gave birth to the first white child born north and west of the Columbia River. In March, 1846. Mrs. James McAllister gave birth to a son, the first born in the Puget Sound region. In the Summer of 1846, Mrs. Sidney S. Ford gave birth to a daughter, the first American girl born north and west of the Columbia River. The child after became Mrs. John Shelton

The first marriage recorded in the Colony was at New Market, Puget Sound, at the house of Mr. Davis, on the 6th day of July, by Judge Simmons, Mr. Daniel F. Kinsey to Miss Ruth Brock of the former place."

In August of 1847, Jesse Ferguson, Col. Simmons, Frank Shaw, E. Sylvester, A. B. Rabbeson, Gabriel Jones, A. D. Carnefix and John Kindred formed a company for the purpose of building a sawmill at New Market, named the Puget Sound Milling Company. The site was the northwest part of the Lower Falls. The mill was completed during the winter of that year.

On August 24, 1847, a trail was made between Smithfield (Olympia) and New Market (Tumwater).

In the Fall of 1847, there arrived in this section Thomas M. Chambers and his sons, David, Andrew, Thomas J. and McLain, also a Mr. Brail and Geo. Shaser.

The last election held in Lewis County under the Provisional Government was in 1848, when Levi Lathrop Smith was elected Representative to the Oregon Provisional Legislature and A. B. Rabbeson was elected Sheriff. Mr. Smith did not live to enter upon the duties of his office. While in a canoe on his way to New Market in August he was seized with an epileptic fit and drowned. This was the first recorded death of an American in this section.

Mr. Smith was a partner of Edmund Sylvester in joint claims owned, by them. Under the partnership clause of the land laws of Oregon's Provisional Government the occupancy of claims by each party for the benefit of the firm was permissable. Smith resided on the Smithfield claim and Sylvester occupied a prairie farm near the Sound. Thus, upon the death if Smith, Sylvester, as the survivor of the firm, became owner of the present site of the City of Olympia. He moved thereon and built the first hotel. It was 16x24, built of logs and contained two rooms.

Rev. Pascal Ricard and a small party of Oblat missionaries in June, 1848, established the St. Joseph Mission, on the site of the present city park, on the east of Budd's Inlet. The Mission continued for several years. Hence the name by which the point has since been known, and which name is now given to Olympia's splendid playground—Priest Point Park. Another settlement was made about this time almost directly across the inlet from Priest Point by Samuel Hancock. This claim later became the property of Conrad Schneider.

The Territorial Government of Oregon was established on August 14. 1848, and included all the Pacific possessions of the United States north to the 32nd parallel, this line being fixed by treaty between the United States and Great Britain.

The development of this section of the Oregon territory was greatly retarded soon after its organization by the gold discoveries made in California, which caused a stampede from the Northwest, and considerably reduced the male population, who preferred to try their fortunes in the gold fields rather than continue the pursuit of fortune along slower bill more certain lines. Farms were abandoned; in many cases crops were not planted, or, if planted, were left neglected and unharvested.

After the arrival of Governor Lane to assume the duties of his office as first Governor of Oregon Territory, Judicial districts were proclaimed and Judges assigned in two, but the third Judicial district which constituted Lewis County, was left without an official clothed with authority to afford protection in all the territory north of the Columbia River.

The first American vessel owned by Washington Territory residents hailed from Olympia, on Puget Sound, and was called the Orbit. She arrived at Olympia on New Years day. 1850, and loaded with piles for San Francisco. Her owners v;ere Messrs. Sylvester, Jackson, Moore, Shaw and Ebey.

The first Legislature under Oregon Territorial Government convened at Oregon City, July, 1849. Lewis County was then included in a Representative and Council district with Clatsop County (now Oregon), and was represented by Samuel T. McKean, of Clatsop, as Councilman, and M. T. Simmons, as Representative. The session continued one hundred days.

Thomas W. Glascow settled on a claim at what is known as Ebey's Landing, Whidby Island, in 1848. and after some preliminary work returned to New Market (Tumwater) and induced A. D. Carnefix and A. B. Rabbeson to return to his new home with him. At the head of Hood's Canal, which they desired to explore, while on their way, they found Indians, many of whom had never beheld a white man. Though Carnefix returned home at the head of the Sound, Rabbeson and Glascow continued their voyage and in July reached the new home of the latter.

About this time there was held in this vicinity a council of Puget Sound Indians, called together by the Chief of the Snoqualmies, Patkanim. The object of this meeting was to induce all the Sound Indians to combine and annihilate the white settlers. Patkanim was the leader in the effort to bring about hostilities. He urged that it was only a matter of a short time when the whites would outnumber the Indians, and the latter would then be transported to a land where the sun never shone, and would there be left to die. One of the great arguments used by this crafty statesman and warrior, however, was that by conquering the whites the Indians would acquire a large amount of property.

This war-like spirit was strongly opposed by the Indians from the Upper Sound, who felt quite friendly to the whites. This pacific attitude of the Indians about the head of the Sound was due to the fact that the stronger tribes on the lower Sound had made war on the weaker ones and made slaves of those of the Indians that they took captives. The presence of the white in and about Smithfield and New Market had proved a protection to their Indian neighbors. More than this the whites had thus far proven themselves scrupulously honest in their dealings with the Indians and thus had the "King George" or "Boston Men" won their confidence.

This opposition to hostilities came near causing a fight on the council grounds. Rabbeson and Glascow, seeing that it. would be unsafe to remain in the neighborhood left, the latter abandoning his claim.

In the Spring of 1849, a party of Snoqualmie Indians made an attack on the Hudson Bay Company's fort at Nisqually, in which Leander C. Wallace was killed and two men, Lewis and Walker, were wounded.

From accounts derived from various sources the following appear to be the facts: A force of Snoqualmies visited the fort, ostensibly to settle a dispute with the Nisqually tribe. There appears to have been a force varying according to several accounts, from 100 to 150. Patkanim was within the fort conferring with Dr. Tolmie, the Agent, while the gates were closed against the other Indians. Wallace, Lewis and Walker, visitors at the fort, together with one, Chas. Wren, outside the fort, noticed hostile demonstrations on the part of the Indians, and apprehending danger, retreated towards the gates. Wren reached it and tried to enter, but was prevented from within. The discharge of a gun at this time precipitated an attack. It was fired into the air by a guard on the inside, preparatory to reloading, and was used as a pretext for the attack. A volley was then fired from the fort and the Indians retreated.

Wallace was the first white man killed by Indians on Puget Sound. The Indians were induced for a consideration of eighty blankets, to deliver up the murderers for trial. This method of dealing was strongly resented by Governor Lane. as it could be construed as putting a premium rather than a punishment on such outrages.

However, before he could prevent it the deal, which had been authorized by an Indian Agent for this district, had been consummated and six Snoqualmie Indians given up by the crafty Patkanim.

At a special term of court held in Ft. Steilacoom the six prisoners were indicted, tried, and two convicted, who were leaders in the attack. The remaining four were acquitted. A vast conclave of Indians were present at the execution. which occurred the day following conviction.

 This was the first United States court held North of the Columbia River. It was convened on the 1st day of October, the trial continued through the second day and upon the third day the two Indians were suspended, as mute object lessons to the Indians that the law must be respected. Some of the jurors who participated in this trial traveled two hundred miles from their homes to reach the court. The summary justice then dealt out could be well used as object lessons for more modern courts.

Chief Justice Bryant presided at this trial. The prosecution was conducted by Judge Alonzo A. Skinner and the Court assigned David Stone, then Prosecuting Attorney for the Third Judicial District to defend the Indians.

Edmund Sylvester, who by the death of his partner, had become sole owner of the claim they had located at the head of Budd's Inlet, in 1850, laid off the claim as a town site and named it Olympia. The name suggests the idea that even in this remote region with rude environments, there were those conversant with the classics. The name was bestowed by Charles H. Smith, who together with Mr. Simmons, had that year established a store in the new settlement, at the corner of Main and Second Streets. The name was doubtless suggested by the beautiful views spread out before them at the head of the Sound, where to the North the Olympic Range was visible and to the East old Rainier reared his majestic head.

At this period, of course, the methods of living by the inhabitants were most primitive. Little in the way of household necessities had reached the new settlement and luxuries were not missed by these hardy pioneers.

Only the necessaries of life and those fancy articles which appealed to the Indians were dealt in at the time. However, in 1852, George A. Barnes opened a general merchandise store: at the West end of First Street, from which time business assumed more pretentious proportions. Later business houses were opened by A. J. Moses, J. G. Parker, Sam Coulter, L. Bettman, Goldman & Rosenblatt, and Louisson & Company. As Olympia was the only town on the Sound a customs house was established here in 1851.

Upon the receipt of news of the discovery of gold on Queen Charlotte's Island, this year, a schooner was chartered by Samuel Williams, J. Colvig, William Billings, S. D. Howe. Charles Weed, S. S. Ford and three Sargent Brothers to go to the new fields. The schooner was wrecked on the East side of the island, plundered by the Indians and the gold- seekers taken prisoners. They were rescued by a revenue cutter and troops from Steilacoom and returned home after two months' absence.

The year 1852 found the settlers in fair condition with brighter prospects, for coal had been discovered and sawmills had been established on the Sound, and these industries had caused a few shipments to be made to San Francisco, the beginning of a trade that was destined at a later date to grow to such dimensions.

The Sound country, which then constituted the Northern part of the Territory of Oregon, was isolated. Many of the towns and settlements were five hundred miles from the seat of government, and under such conditions the settlers here received little attention or consideration from the Territorial Legislature, though at this period it was considered that Lewis County, that section north of Cowlitz County, contained a little over three hundred inhabitants, of which 180 were citizens.

Pacific County was created in 1851 and in 1852 a new County was created to include the territory west of the Cascade Mountains and north of the Cowlitz divide. The new County was named Thurston, after Samuel R. Thurston, a highly cultured gentleman who had been elected to Congress by the factions opposed to the Hudson Bay Company. Thurston died at sea April 9, 1851, while returning from the National Capitol His remains were buried at Acapulco. though they were afterward brought to Salem, Oregon, and buried, marked with a stone bearing this inscription: "Here rests Oregon's delegate, a man of genius and learning, a lawyer and statesman, his Christian virtues equaled by his wide philanthropy. His public acts are his best eulogium."

In accordance with the act creating the new County of Thurston an election was held in June. 1852, at which the following officers were elected: A. J. Simmons, Sheriff; A. M. Poe. County Clerk; D. R. Bigelow, Treasurer; R. S. Bailey, Assessor; Edmund Sylvester. Coroner; A. A. Denny, S. S. Ford and David Shelton, County Commissioners.

The records of the first session of the County Commissioners, shows the following business transacted:

The tax levy was fixed at 4 mills for County purposes. 1 1/2 mills for schools, 1 1/2 mills Territorial, and $1 poll tax.

T. F. McElroy and Geo. Barnes were appointed Justices of the Peace.

Road districts were established and Wm. Packwood was authorized to establish a ferry on the Nisqually River.

Precincts were established as follows: Skagit precinct. Whidby Island and all islands north. Port Townsend precinct, territory north of Hood's Canal on the west side of the Sound. Duwamish precinct, east side of Sound north of Puyallup River and all south of Hood's Canal to the parallel of the north parallel of the Puyallup river on west side of Sound. Steilacoom precinct, territory north of Nisqually River to the Puyallup on the east side of the Sound and thence due west to mouth of Nisqually River to the parallel of the mouth of the Puyallup. Olympia precinct, territory south of Steilacoom precinct.

For school purposes: Olympia precinct contained districts 1 and 2; Duwamish was designed as one district, Skagit precinct, one district; Port Townsend precinct as one district.

The first term of the district Court was convened at Olympia this year and Elwood Evans, D. R. Bigelow. Quincy A. Brooks and S. H. Moses were admitted to practice.

Thornton F. McElroy and J. \V. Wiley printed the first newspaper published in Thurston County. It was called the Columbian and the first issue appeared on September 11, 1852.

The regular district school opened this year and was taught by David L. Phillips.

The pioneer settlers now began to feel the absolute necessity for a division of the territory and desired to be set aside from Oregon. Agitation along these lines resulted in a call for a convention to meet at Monticello November 25, 1852. Monticello was then a considerable settlement on the Cow- lit/ River.

Thurston County sent as delegates to this convention M. T. Simmons. S. D. Ruddle, S. P. Moses, Adam Wylie, Q. A. .Brooks and C. H. Hale.

The result of this convention was that Congress was memorialized to create the Territory of Columbia out of that portion of Oregon lying north and west of the Columbia River. There was no opposition on the part of the people of Oregon to this separation, and the result was that the new territory was created by an Act signed by the President on March 3, 1853. Congress, however, overruled the people in the matter of a name for the new territory, and inasmuch as there was already a District of Columbia, it was decided to honor the Father of His Country, hence the Territory of Washington.

A school house was erected in the Fall of 1852 on the now northwest corner of Sixth and Franklin Streets, Olympia. The structure was a frail one and succumbed under a heavy fall: of snow during the winter. It was rebuilt later.

The tide of immigration now set in quite strong, and demand for lumber increasing, a mill was built at New Market by Ira Ward, N. Barnes and S. Hays, with a daily output of :},000 feet per day.

In January, 1853, before the new Territorial Government became effective, the Oregon Territorial Legislature created the Counties of Pierce, King, Island and Jefferson, all out of Thurston County, leaving the latter to include only the present Counties of Thurston, Chehalis and Mason.

President Pierce, soon after his inauguration, appointed Isaac I. Stevens as Governor of the new Territory; Chas. H. Mason, Secretary; J. S. Clendennin, Attorney; J. Patton
Anderson. Marshal; Edward Lander, Chief Justice; Victor Monroe and O. B. McFadden, Associate Justices.

Marshal Anderson's first official act was to cause a census to be taken, and a population of 3,965 was reported, of which 1682 were voters.

Transportation and mail facilities in 1853 were very unsatisfactory for the residents of the Sound region. At this time connection was made with Portland by means of a stage which left Olympia every Tuesday, connecting with boats on the Columbia. Later, however, B. F. Yantis and A. B. Robbeson formed a partnership for the purpose of running a stage line, and advertised to put their passengers through in twelve hours.

In 1853 the resources of the County began to be developed. A little coal was mined, a bed of natural oysters was discovered on Budd's Inlet, and hewed timber was quoted at 16 to 18 cents per cubic foot, shingles $4.50 to $5.00 per thousand and cordwood $4.00 per cord.

The necessity for an emigrant route over the Cascades led to a public meeting being held in Thurston County and a committee appointed to view out a route, and a road through the Natchez pass was the result, which was a means of greatly stimulating emigration.

In the Summer of 1853, a census taken for Thurston County showed a population of 996. The first grand and petit jurors were drawn at this time.

Governor Stevens reached Olympia on November 25, 1853, five months and nineteen days from St. Paul. Secretary Charles H. Mason had already arrived.

Among those ready to welcome the new Governor to the Sound were Colonel William Cock, Shirley Ensign. D. R. Bigelow, Geo. A. Barnes, H. A. Goldsborough, Jno. M. Swan. C. H. Hale. Judge B. F. Yantis, Judge Gilmore Hays, Jno. G. Parker, Quincy A. Brooks, Dr. G. K. Willard, Col. M. T. Simmons, Capt. Clanrick Crosby. Ira Ward, James Biles, Joseph Cushman, S. W. Percival, Edwin Marsh. R. M. Walker, Levi and James Offut, J. C. Head, W. Dobbins, Isaac Hawk, Rev. Geo. F. Whitworth, Jared S. Hurd, H. R. Woodward, B. F. Brown, and M. Hurd.

The arrival of the new Governor was the most momentous event that had occurred in the history of Olympia. and on his appearance in the garb of a hardy frontiersman he was given a hearty welcome and reception at the Washington Hotel (now standing) at the corner of Main and Second Streets, and when, a little later Governor Stevens delivered a lecture, giving the results of his explorations for a Northern transcontinental route, the enthusiasm of the pioneers was boundless.

Immediately upon arrival of the Governor, he issued ; proclamation establishing election districts, and appointing January 30. 1854. as the time for holding an election for delegate to Congress, and members of the Legislature, which was to meet in Olympia February 28th.

The Governor appointed M. T. Simmons Indian Agent for the Puget Sound Indians and sent him to visit the various tribes, and bear a message of friendship from the White Father.

The first political campaign in Thurston County was an exciting one, in which three parties participated, the Democratic, Whig and Union. The Legislative nominees on the respective tickets were as follows:

Democratic—For Councilman, D. R. Bigelow and S. D. Ruddell; for Representatives, L. D. Durgin, George Gallaher, David Shelton and A. J. Chambers.

Union—For Councilman, D. R. Bigelow and B. F. Yantis; for Representatives, A. W. Moore, F. W. Glascow, S. S. Ford, and James H. Roundtree.

Whig—For Councilman, B. F. Yantis and E. J. Allen: for Representatives, Ira Ward, C. H. Hale, J. L. Brown, Gallatin Hartsock.

After a short but hard-fought campaign the following were elected: Councilmen, B. F. Yantis and D. R. Bigelow; Representatives, L. D. Durgin, David Shelton, Ira Ward, and C. H. Hale.

Judge Columbus Lancaster was elected first Delegate to Congress.

Upon convening of the Legislature in a small two-story building on Main Street, between Second and Third, the Governor delivered an able message, in which he predicted a brilliant future for the new territory, much of which has already been realized; urged County and school organization and the organization of a militia. He dwelt on the importance of extinguishing the Indian titles and the claims of the Hudson Bay and Puget Sound Agricultural Companies and settling the boundary line of the British side, and advised the Legislature to memorialize Congress for the appointment of a Surveyor-General to facilitate the survey of the lands, and advocated many other salutary measures which were promptly adopted by the Legislature except the recommendation regarding a militia. This proved a bad oversight as later redevelopments showed, when two years later the Indians became hostile.

Governor Stevens purchased Block 84, Olympia, for his future home, and a tract of ten acres in what is now known as Maple Park. He also contracted for the purchase of the north half of the Walker donation claim, between Olympia and Tumwater.

Governor Stevens, amid his other duties, worked with zeal on the reports of his exploration for the Northern transcontinental route and was assisted by Capt. McClellan (afterwards Gen. Geo. B. McClellan) and others. Governor Stevens' offices were in two one-story buildings on the West side of Main Street, between Second and Third Streets.

The Governor reported to Secretary of War Jefferson C. Davis on his exploration and later received peremptory orders to bring his operations along these lines to a close, which he did, but not without urging their continuance at a later day. The opposition with which Governor Stevens met in this regard was doubtless due to the eagerness of the future President of the Southern Confederacy for a Southern transcontinental route.

The acts of the first Legislature affecting Thurston County was that of creating Chehalis County out of the southwest part of the former and Sawamish out of the northwest section, thus materially reducing the area of Thurston. The name of the latter County was afterward changed to Mason, after the first Secretary of the Territory.

Also a road was ordered located between Olympia and Shoal water Bay; from Cathlamet to S. S. Ford's in Thurston County; Olympia to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Olympia to Monticello.

The Legislature also appointed County officers for the various Counties, and the following were assigned for Thurston County: County Commissioners, S. S. Ford, David J. Chambers and James McAllister; Auditor, U. E. Hicks; Sheriff, Frank Kennedy; Assessor, Whitfield Kertley; Probate Judge, Stephen D. Ruddle; County Treasurer, D. R. Bigalow; School Superintendent, Elwood Evans; William Plumb, Nathan Eaton and Joseph Broshears, Justices of the Peace

Stephen Ruddle declining the Probate Judgeship, Joseph Cushman was appointed in his place.

The County Commissioners adopted measures protecting the school interests in the matter of public lands; fixed the license fee for retailing liquor at $100 for six months, and howling alleys at $25 per annum, and accepted a report from Thos. J. Chambers, who had been appointed to mark out a quarter section of land for the benefit of a County seat to be the most valuable unclaimed land within the limits of the County. Mr. Chambers reported in favor of section 19, township 18, range 1 West,

The tax rolls for 1854 showed a valuation of $418,140 and the rate of taxation was fixed at 3 mills.

The Commissioners this year authorized the construction of a bridge across the Bay on the Eastside at a cost of $500, and one across the Skookumchuck, for which they appropriated $1,000. The former bridge was built at a cost of $1,500, $1,000 being subscribed for that purpose.

Up to this time no proper provision had been made for County offices and records were kept in a very temporary manner. The Commissioners now authorized a contract for a Court House to cost not to exceed $1,200 and ordered the Auditor to procure suitable books for the records.

At the election in 1854 three tickets were in the field, Free Soil, Democratic and Whig.

There were no local issues involved and the battle was fought along the lines agitated in the East. The straight Democratic County ticket was elected, as follows:

Representatives, Wm. Cock, B. L. Henness, Stephen Guthrie, Wm. P. Wells; County Commissioners, Levi Shelton, S. S. Ford, John Low; Probate Judge, Joseph Cushman; School Superintendent, D. R. Bigelow; Auditor, U. E. Hicks; Treasurer, Wm. Rutledge; Sheriff, A. B. Rabbeson; Assessor, Wm. Packwood; Coroner, A. J. Baldwin. J. Patton Anderson, who had come to the Territory as United States Marshal, was elected as Delegate to Congress.

During this period Governor Stevens returned East, spending much of his time at the National Capitol, in the interests of his Territory. Much of the legislation secured for Washington was due to his efforts, which included needed amendments to the land laws and the creation of the office of Surveyor General, and making appropriations for surveys and mail service.

Governor Stevens and his family left New York City for the Territory September 20, 1854, and arrived at their new home in December. A pen picture of the impression gained by the family, upon their arrival, as described by General Stevens, showed conditions as they then prevailed:

"It was a dreary dark December day. It had rained considerably. The road from Tumwater to Olympia was ankle deep in mud and threaded a dense forest with a narrow track. With expectations raised at the idea of seeing the Capital and chief town of the Territory, the weary travelers toiled up the small hill in the edge of the timber, reached the summit and eagerly looked to see the new metropolis. Their hearts sank with bitter disappointment as they surveyed the dismal and forlorn scene before them. A low, flat neck of land, running into the bay, down it stretched the narrow, muddy track, winding among the stumps, which stood thickly on either side twenty small wooden houses bordered the road, while back of them on the left and next the shore were a number of Indian lodges, with canoes drawn up on the beach, and Indians and dogs lounging about." The little hill mentioned is where the Masonic Temple now stands, opposite the new Federal building. The site of the Indian camp is now Columbia Street, between Third and Fourth. There were only one or two buildings above, or south of Sixth Street. The public square was a tangle of fallen timber. Main street terminated in Giddings' wharf, which was left high and dry at low tides."

It is not a matter of surprise that the Governor's family were appalled at the appearance of their future home, accentuated as it was by the hardships of the trip from the East, the latter part of which is thus described:

The party took canoes (at a point named Rainier), manned by Indians, crossed the Columbia and paddled a few miles up the Cowlitz to Monticello, where they spent the night. At daylight the next morning the Governor and family embarked in one canoe, while the trunks and baggage followed in another, and pushed up stream against a swift current. There were in the canoe the Governor, his wife and four children, the nurse and a crew of four Indians, two on each end. It was a dark, drizzling day, with frequent showers. The passengers sat upon the bottom of the canoe upon plenty of Indian mats and well wrapped in blankets, and, except for the strained and irksome position were fairly comfortable. The Indians, urged by promises of extra pay, paddled vigorously. At the rapids (and it seemed that nearly all the stream was in rapids) they laid aside their paddles, and, standing up, forced the canoe ahead with poles, which they wielded with great skill and vigor.  It was dark when they reached Cowlitz Landing, thirty miles from Monticello."

Mrs. Stevens continues the narrative, here quoted, as a vivid description of the methods of travel in this section at that time:

We walked ankle deep in mud to a small log house, where we had a good meal. Here we found a number of rough, dirty-looking men, with pantaloons tucked inside their boots, and so much hair upon their heads and faces that they all looked alike. After tea we were shown a room to sleep in, full of beds, which were for the women. I was so worn out with the novel way of traveling, that I laid down on a narrow strip of bed, not undressed, all my family alongside on the same bed. The Governor sat on a stool near by, and, strange to say, slept sound through the long, dismal night. lie had been shown his bed up through a hole on top of the shanty. He said one look was sufficient. Men were strewn as thick as possible on the floor in their blankets. The steam generated from their wet clothes, boots and blankets was stifling. One small hole cut through the roof was the only ventilation. As soon as breakfast was over the next morning, we mounted a wagon without springs and proceeded on our journey. There surely were no worse roads in the world than this. The horses went down deep into the mud every step; the wheels sank to the hub, and often had to be pried out. "We forded rivers, the water coming above our ankles in the wagon. Many big, deep holes they would jump over, making the horses run quick, when the wagon would jump across, shaking us up fearfully. In one of these holes the horses fell down, and we stuck fast in the mud. We were taken from the wagon by men of our party, plunging up to their knees in mud, and carrying us out by sheer force of their strength. After seating us upon a fallen log, the horses were, with difficulty, extricated from the mud. After another long day's tiresome travel we stopped at a log house for the night."

The Governor's party proceeded the following day through a drizzling rain, with the roads all but impassible. At Saunders Bottom, where the Town of Chehalis now stands, the mud was knee deep for two miles. This day the party made 25 miles. The travelers reached Olympia the next day, after 30 miles' travel, upon a somewhat better road. Such were the hardships endured by those looking for new homes in the far Northwest, but harder yet were the experiences of those reaching here by way of the Natchez Pass, as many were coming that way.

An idea of the cost of living during this period, may be gleaned from the following market report, published in the only paper printed in the Territory at that time:

Potatoes, per bushel, $3; flour, $10 per 100 pounds; pork, 20 cents; butter, $1 per pound; onions, $4 per bushel; eggs, $1 a dozen; beets, $3.50 per bushel; sugar, I21/o cents; coffee, 18 cents; tea, $1; molasses, 75 cents; salmon, 10 cents. Sawed lumber for $20 per thousand; cedar, $30; shingles, $4.50; piles, per foot, 5 to 8 cents; square timber, per foot, 12 to 15 cents.

In December, 1854, W. B. Goodell established a stage line between Olympia and Cowlitz via Grand .Mound, leaving Olympia on Tuesdays and Fridays of each week. At Cowlitz, near the present site of Toledo, it made connections with boats for Monticello and Portland. Olympia to Grand Mound, $3.50; to Cowlitz, $10.00.

W. W. Miller built a saw mill the latter part of 1854 on the East side of Budd's Inlet, a short distance below the town, and the old Masonic hall was built on the site of the more pretentious Temple of today. In this old building the Legislative session of 1855 was held. Edward Giddings built a wharf, 300 feet long, at the foot of Main Street, which was used for many years. Later it was extended to deep water and was used until the Government deepened the channel for a nearer approach to the town.

In 1855, Samuel Coulter, who had been appointed Assessor, reported the valuation of taxable property at $396,825, and a levy of 4 mills was made. The County debt, at the same time amounted to $4,388.29.

Among other duties devolving upon the Legislature of 1855 was that of permanently locating the seat of Government. Hon. Arthur A. Denny was a member of the House from King County, and spoke as follows upon the subject:

"Mr. Speaker:—I propose to do now what I have not done before: I propose to say now what I have not heretofore said to anyone (if my memory serves me) relative to my views upon this location question. I now for the first time announce my purpose to vote for the location of the territorial capital at or near Olympia; and for my vote upon this question I shall briefly assign a few reasons.

"Justice to all sections of the territory require at our hands patient and careful investigation as to the proper place at which to locate the Territorial capital. Its location should be central both as to its geographical position, as well as to its center compared with our population. In my investigation of this question, I have arrived at the conclusion that Olympia is nearer the geographical center than any other point I have heard mentioned during the discussion on this subject, and that it is also nearer the center of our present population. If, Mr. Speaker, you take Thurston County, with its population and add it to the Counties north, there will be found a clear and decided majority of the population of our Territory in those Counties. If you will take Thurston from the northern Counties and unite her with the Counties south. then it will show a still more decided majority south. Thus it is clearly demonstrated that Olympia is about the center of population in this Territory. It is as easily accessible from all parts of the Territory as any place which has been named during the pendency of this question, or that could have been named. It is at the head of navigation at a point the farthest inland, accessible from all Counties north by all manner of watercraft from steamer down to the Indian canoe. It is in a direct line from the Counties south to the Counties north, of the Territory. If you travel from the northern to the southern Counties, you must go through Thurston or travel out of your course. If you travel from the southern to the northern Counties you have to pass through Thurston. Then as to the particular location—the site is clearly eligible, the land selected is elevated and overlooks the placid waters of Puget Sound for many miles to the northward. The scenery is grand and imposing—to the north the Coast Range is seen looming up in the distance. Mount Olympus standing out in bold relief amidst the hundreds of less elevated peaks in the vicinity.

"Indeed, Mr. Speaker, I know of no other place combining anything like the claims, all things considered, to the Territorial capital as does this immediate vicinity; hence I shall most willingly give my support to the bill under consideration. In doing so. I am influenced by no motives of a pecuniary character—I own no town lots or landed estate in Thurston County and such is the poor estimate of my vote or influence that I have not had even the offer of an oyster supper from the good citizens of Olympia as an inducement for either."

Even as early as 1855 the question of prohibition was, to some extent, agitated. This year the Legislature submitted the question of the manufacture and sale of ardent spirits to a vote of the people of the Territory at the next election in July. Quite a vigorous campaign was had, Elwood Evans being appointed Chairman of the Executive Committee, who issued a call upon temperance people to form societies.

A Democratic County Convention was called for April of this year. The Whig convention was held May 5, and the Free Soil convention May 26. At the election Thurston County gave J. Patton Anderson, Democratic candidate for Delegate to Congress nine majority. Wm. Cock was elected Councilman ; R. M. Walker, C. B. Baker, D. J. Chambers, Representatives; T. F. Berry, Surveyor; Assessor, W. B. D. Newman; Commissioner, J. S. Broshears; Fence Viewer, B. M. Walker; Lieutenant Colonel, Joseph Miles; Major, J. K. Kurd.

The vote of Thurston by precincts will give the reader a practical idea of how the population was scattered throughout the County: Three hundred and seventy-three votes were cast as follows: Olympia precinct, 260; South Bay, 18; Black Lake, 15; Yelm Prairie, 18; Grand Mound, 39; Miami, 9; Coal Bank, 18. Prohibition received a majority of 14 votes in this County, but failed to carry in the Territory.

In August, 1855, a two story school building was erected to replace the one that had been crushed by snow a few years previously. This building has served various purposes. Erected as a school house originally, it was so used for years; from 1871 to 1892 it was the Court house, and latter became a newspaper office. It has since been moved off the property at Sixth and Franklin and is now occupied as a lodging house.

A history of the year 1856 is almost exclusively a story of Indian troubles. All the serious difficulties that Thurston County experienced in this regard, or during which much apprehension was felt, was during this year. Reports were coming to Olympia of troubles in the White River valley, which aroused considerable apprehension. The Yakima tribes were the troublesome element, and it was presumed then, and has since been accepted as reasonably certain, that they were encouraged in their depredations by the Hudson Bay Company, which, in this way, hoped to discourage immigration.

The first overt act to occur in Thurston County, and from which trouble may be said to date, was early in 1854. when a Kake (a Northern tribe) Indian was killed by a man named Burke, both of whom worked for H. L. Butler, at Butler's Cove. Subsequently the Northern Indians frequently visited the head of the Sound and committed depredations. The acts at least became so flagrant that Commander Swartout, then in command of what United States navy there was in these waters, was notified. On November 20th, he made an attack upon their camp at Port Gamble. About thirty were killed and twenty wounded, their camp and canoes destroyed. The remainder were taken to Victoria. This act but served to whet the appetite of the Indians for revenge.

The Indians on the Sound, including those on the Straits, numbered about 8,000, divided into many tribes arid bands.

Governor Stevens, early in his administration, outlined a very wise and pacific policy toward the Indians, and one which he devoted himself to actively and sincerely, the features of which were:

1. To concentrate the Indians upon a few reservations and encourage them to cultivate the soil and adopt civilized habits.

2. To pay for their lands in annuities of blankets, clothing, and stable articles during a long term of years, rather than in money.

3. To furnish them with schools, teachers, farmers and farming implements, blacksmiths and carpenters, with shops of their trade.

4. To discourage wars and disputes among them.

5. To abolish slavery.

6. To stop, as far as possible, the use of liquor.

7. They were to retain rights of hunting and fishing on vacant lands.

8. That at some future date, when they were deemed fitted for it, the reservations were to be allotted to them in severally,

The first Council in Thurston County was held on McAllister Creek, a mile above its mouth, on the right bank.

The Indians, to the number of 650, assembled, and Governor Stevens made an address, at once pacific and appealing, in which he made plain to the Indians his policy as outlined above, and invited their co-operation.

The treaty was then read, section by section, and the Indians given every opportunity to discuss it. After which, there being no objections, the treaty was signed by Governor I.I. Stevens and the Chiefs, Delegates and Headmen on the part of the Indians. Provisions and presents were then delivered to the Chiefs, who divided them among the Indians.

Following is a synopsis of the treaty:

1. The Indians to cede their lands in Thurston, Pierce and parts of Mason and King to the United States.

2. Set off as reservations: Squaxon Island, containing about 1280 acres; a square tract of two sections near and south of the mouth of McAllister Creek and another equal tract on the south side of Commencement Bay, with accessible roads to and through them.

3. Conceded right of fishing and hunting on other than claimed lands.

4. Twenty-two thousand five hundred dollars to be paid in annuities in staple and useful articles.5. Thirty thousand two hundred and fifty dollars to be expended in placing the Indians on their reservations.

6. Empowered the President to remove the Indians when the interests of the Territory demanded, by reimbursing the Indians for improvements.

7. Prohibited use of annuities to pay personal debts.

8. Prohibited wars, and provided for arbitration of differences by the Government.

9. Excluded liquor from reservations on penalty of forfeiture of annuity.

10. Provided for a General Agency and instruction in useful trades for twenty years.

11. Abolished slavery.

12. Prohibited trade by the Indians outside of the United States, and forbade foreign Indians residing on the reservations except by consent of the Agent.

Sixty-two Indians signed. Leschi, an intelligent and designing Indian, who has since been immortalized by having a Seattle park named for him, being the third. The first signer was Qui-ee-muth, Leschi's brother. Both these Indians met death as a reward for their treachery.

On October 14, 1855, Acting Governor Mason issued a proclamation, stating conditions and called for the enrollment of two Companies, and Vancouver and Olympia were named as places of enrollment.

The Company enrolled at Olympia was called the Puget Sound Mounted Volunteers, which elected officers as follows. Captain, Gilmore Hays; First Lieutenant, Jared S. Hurd; Second Lieutenant, Wm. Martin; First Sergeant, Joseph Gibson; Second Sergeant, H. D. Cock; Third Sergeant, Thomas Prather; Fourth Sergeant. Joseph "White; First Corporal, Joseph S. Taylor; Second Corporal, Whitfield Kirtley; Third Corporal, D. T. Wheelock; Fourth Corporal, John Scott.

The people were disappointed in receiving arms that were expected at that time, which necessitated a visit by Surveyor General Tilton to Seattle with a view to securing arms from the Decatur, a sloop of war, and the revenue cutter Jefferson Davis, both then in the harbor. He was successful to the extent of securing 30 muskets, 40 carbines, 50 holster pistols, 50 sabers and belts and 3500 ball cartridges.

Nathan Eaton, a settler in Thurston, was authorized by Acting Governor Mason, to organize a Company of Rangers, which was officered as follows: First Lieutenant, James McAllister; Second Lieutenant, James Tullis; Third Lieutenant. A. M. Poe; First Sergeant, John Harold; Second Sergeant. Chas. E. Weed; Third Sergeant, W. W. Miller; Fourth Sergeant, S. Phillips; First Corporal, S. D. Reinhart; Second Corporal, Thos. Bracken; Third Corporal, S. Hodgdon; Fourth Corporal, James Hughes.

Both Companies proceeded to White River valley on October 20, 1855.

A Company was organized on Mound Prairie and tho citizens then built a blockhouse for protection. A Company was also formed on Chambers Prairie.

As a precautionary measure it was deemed wise to hold a reserve force and four more Companies were called for. By the terms of this call, Lewis, Thurston, Pierce and Samamish were to furnish one Company to enroll at Olympia. This Company enrolled 110 men and elected the following officers: Captain, Geo. B. Goudy; First Lieutenant, W. B. Affleck; Second Lieutenant, J. K. Hurd; First Sergeant. Francis Lindler; Second Sergeant, A. J. Baldwin; Third Sergeant, F. W. Sealy ; Fourth Sergeant, James Roberts. Jos. "Walraven. E. W. Austin. Hiel Barnes and Joseph Dean, Corporals.

Stockades for the protection of families were built in this County, one on Chambers Prairie and one on Mound Prairie. Business was practically suspended in town and claims were abandoned in the country. Men were either preparing to leave for the scene of the trouble or were engaged in the erection of forts and stockades for protection.

The Rangers left home on October 24th, to seek the wily Chief of the Nesquallys, Leschi, who was the instigator of much of the trouble and hostile attitude of many of the natives, but they found he had gone to the "White River Valley, and the troops immediately started in pursuit. At Puyallup Crossing, Captain Eaton, Lieutenant McAllister and Connell. together with a friendly Indian, went ahead of their Company to have a conference with the Indians. The Indians, with characteristic treachery, professed friendship. Upon returning to camp, McAllister and Council were fired upon and killed. An Indian rode to the McAllister claim and told the family of McAllister's death and helped them to the fort on Chambers' Prairie, A few days later Cols. A. B. Moses and Joseph Miles were killed. It was for the murder of these men that Leschi was afterward executed.

Emissaries from the hostiles on the East side of the mountains visited the Sound Indians, and by ingenious argument incited the natives on this side to hostility. Straggling bands were perpetrating outrages here and there, and thus were families intimidated and forced to take refuge in Olympia A town meeting was held, at which Wm. Cock was chosen chairman and Elwood Evans, secretary. After discussing the situation it was resolved to build a stockade. Rev. J. F. Devore, R. M. Walker and Wm. Cock were constituted a committee to proceed at once on works for defense, and, if necessary, to detain the brig Tarquina. then in the harbor; as a means of refuge.

While this condition existed and a sable cloud lay low over the little town, the bodies of McAllister. Moses and Miles were brought in, and during a dismal fall of rain, the little community bared their heads in grief over the mortal remains of their first martyrs. The three young men were buried on Chambers' Prairie,

A stockade was erected along Fourth Street, from bay to bay. with a block house at the corner of Main, on which was placed a cannon.

These were merely precautionary measures. Actual fighting occurred only in the White and Puyallup Valleys, and in December, the Militia Companies were disbanded.

An attack on Seattle occurred January 26, 1856. an 1 Governor Stevens then issued a proclamation calling for six Companies, two of which were to enroll at Olympia.

The entire white population of the Sound at this time: was barely 4,000 souls and all the male population fit to bear arms had been and were now devoting their time and energies to defense, rather than in the pursuit of their occupations; they were destitute and discouraged, and were receiving little or no help from the Government.

The first Company here to respond was officered as follows: Captain, Gilmore Hays; First Lieutenant, A. B. Rabbison ; Second Lieutenant. Wm. Martin ; Orderly Sergeant, Frank Ruth; Sergeants, A. J. Moses, D. Martin, M. Goddell; Corporals, N. B. Coffey, J. L. Myers, F. Hughes. H. Horton.

A Company of Mounted Rangers elected officers as follows: Captain, B. L. Henness; First Lieutenant, Geo. C. Blanken- ship; Second Lieutenant, F. A. Godwin; Sergeants, Jos. Cush- man. W. J. Yeager, Henry Laws, Jas. Phillips; Corporals, Wm. E, Kady, Thos. Hicks, S. A. Phillips, H. A. Johnson.

On February 8 there was organized a company of miners and sappers under Captain Jas. A. White; U. E. Hicks, First Lieutenant; McLain Chambers, Second Lieutenant; D. J. Hubbard, C. White, Marcus McMillan, H. G. Parsons, Sergeants, Corporals, Isaac Lemon, Wm. Ruddell. Wm. Mengle. This Company was organized to cut roads, build fortifications, guard stock, etc.

Adjutant General Tilton, on March 1, issued a call for too more men for service under Major Hays, with headquarters in Olympia. and in April a block house was built, sufficient to accommodate the whole population, on a site now known as Capital Park. The spot is indicated by a stone, erected by the Daughters of the American Revolution, to mark the end of the Oregon trail.

The Indians now seemed tiring of the unavailing struggle, although a Peace Commission composed of M. T. Simmons and Ed. C. Fitzhugh, appointed by the Governor to treat with the Indians, was unable to bring about satisfactory results. But the Indians were disbanding and the soldiers returned home, subject to call and were finally mustered out in August. The horses, stores, etc., were sold at public auction. An incident which shows the characteristic integrity and regard for honor prevalent among the pioneers is here given. An officer of one of the volunteer Companies had captured a mule in Grand; Ronde Valley. While in the service, he rode it home to Olympia. and turned it in. He desired to bid it in and own it, but the highest bid was $475 and the faithful volunteer, impoverished by ten months' military service, was unable to meet, the raise.

During the struggle stockades and block houses had been built in Thurston County by settlers as follows: Stockade at Cochran's, Skookumchuck; stockade. Fort Henness, Grand Mound Prairie; stockade at Goodell's, Grand Mound Prairie; block house, Tenalquot Prairie; block house, Nathan Eaton's. Chambers Prairie , two block houses. Chambers Prairie; block house at Ruddell's, Chambers Prairie; stockade at Bush's. Bush Prairie; block house at Rutledge's, Bush Prairie; two block houses in Tumwater; block house at Doffelmeyer's Point.

Forts and block houses built in Thurston County by the Volunteers were: Block house at Skooknmchuck, Port Miller. Tenalquot Plains; Fort Stevens, Yelm Prairie; block house at Lowe's, Chambers Prairie; block house and stockade at Olympia.

No stockades were built by the Federal troops in Thurston County.

The Volunteers had acquitted themselves creditably. Though a sturdy type of the Western pioneer, they had subjected themselves to strict discipline. All captured property was turned over or accounted for. No case of wanton killing of Indians had been reported.

At the close of hostility the settlers justly felt that the murderers among the Indians should be tried and subjected To punishment. In this they were firmly supported by Governor Stevens. In a letter to Col. Casey, the Governor asked his assistance to this end:

"I have, therefore, to request your aid in apprehending Leschi, Qui-ee-muth, Kitsap, Slahi and Nelson, and other murderers, and to keep them in custody awaiting a warrant from the nearest magistrate.

"In conclusion I have to state that I do not believe that any coxmtry or any age has afforded an example of the kindness and justice which has been shown towards the Indians by the suffering inhabitants of the Sound during the recent troubles. They have, in spite of the few cases of murder which have occurred, shown themselves eminently law-abiding, a just and forbearing people. They desire the murderers of the Indians to be punished, but they complain, and they have a right to complain, if the Indians, whose hands are steeped in the blood of the innocent, go unwhipped of justice."

There had arisen a question between the Governor and the military as to wether any promise of protection had beer, made to the Indians when they delivered themselves up to

Colonel Wright in Yakima, Col. "Casey claiming that to attempt. to hold any on a charge of murder would be a violation of good faith. The Governor positively controverted the assumption of protection to the Indians, as he had received positive assurance from Col. Wright that he had made no terms with them and promised them no immunity. The Governor, relying upon this statement made to him by Col. Wright, in tin- presence of creditable witnesses, refused to receive and take charge of a party of about 100 Sound Indians until the murderers' were arrested, claiming that Leschi and the others had committed murders in time of peace, in a barbarous way, when their victims were nnaware of danger.

However, the accused murderers were arrested and indicted and received by Col. Casey for custody at Fort Steilacoom, whereupon the Governor took charge of the other Indians and returned them to their reservations. At the first trial of Leschi the jury disagreed, but at a subsequent trial he was convicted. The case was appealed to the Supreme1 Court, where the judgment of the lower court was affirmed and the murderer was sentenced to be hanged on January 22, 1858, at Port Steilacoom. Petitions were circulated for pardon and numerous remonstrances were filed with the Governor, but the Governor declined to interfere. Time for the execution passed and Leschi still lived. A committee, appointed by indignant citizens, inquired into the cause for delay. The report of this committee disclosed interference by the military authorities at Fort Steilacoom, and severely censured the Sheriff of Pierce County. At a session of the Supreme Court February 12, 1858, Leschi was resentenced to hang February 19. Sheriff Hays was ordered to carry out the order of the court. In the absence of the Sheriff. Deputy Mitchell went, with a posse of twelve men. to Steilacoom, where the sentence was carried out and Leschi was made to pay the penalty of his crimes.

Yelm Jim who had been charged with the murder of Wm. White in March, 1856, came to trial April, 1859. He was found guilty and was sentenced to be hanged. Before the time set for the execution arrived, however, two Indians came to Olympia and confessed to the crime. Yelm Jim was pardoned.

Qui-ee-muth, Leschi's brother, was captured near Yelm and brought to the Governor's office in Olympia late at night. The Governor stationed a guard over the Indian, with strict orders for protection until morning, when the prisoner would be removed to Steilacoom. About daylight, while the guard slept, a man burst into the room, shooting the Indian in the arm and then stabbing him. The deed was done and the assassin gone before the guard was thoroughly aroused. The man making the attack was not identified, and no testimony could be found against anyone. The impression gained credence, however, that Joseph Bunting, son-in-law of McAllister, committed the deed, thus revenging the death of McAllister.

As has been before stated, the Indians, in their hostilities toward the settlers, were much encouraged by the Hudson Bay Company. During the war there lived in the country back of Steilacoom, a number of ex-employees of the Company, who had Indian wives and half breed children. It was reported to the Governor that these men were giving aid and comfort to the Indians. The Indians who killed White and Northcraft in Thurston County, were tracked straight to the houses of these men, who, when asked concerning it, admitted the fact, but denied any knowledge of their acts.

As a precautionary measure, the Governor ordered these men to remove either to Steilacoom, Nisqually or Olympia, until the end of hostilities, where they would be harmless to the interests of the settlers. Accordingly twelve of them moved in. They had taken out their first papers and had located donation claims. A few lawyers who had not distinguished themselves by assisting, or even been identified with, the worthy settler in resisting the Indians, here saw a chance for serving their own purposes, and incited these men to resist the Governor's order in the courts, and in the meantime return to their claims, which five of them did. On learning this, the Governor ordered them arrested and turned over to Col. Casey at Port Steilacoom.

Then the designing lawyers sued out a writ of habeas corpus. To forestall an effort on the part of the conspirators to seriously impair the plans of his administration, the Governor declared martial law on April 3. The prisoners were brought to Olympia and incarcerated in the old block house en the public square. Judge Chenoweth, whose place it was to hear the proceedings, plead illness, and asked Judge Lander, whose district included Thurston County, to hear the habeas corpus cases. Lander hastened to Steilacoom and opened court May 7. The Governor had urged the Judge to adjourn court until Indian troubles were over, which must necessarily be soon, and all trouble thus averted. But Lander proceeded to open court, whereupon Col. Shaw walked into court and arrested the Judge and the officers of his court and brought them to Olympia, where they were released.

Lander, being then at home, and the time for holding court in his own district having arrived, he opened court on the 14th, and summoned the Governor to answer contempt proceedings. The Governor ignored the order and accordingly United States Marshal Geo. W. Corliss proceeded to the Governor's office to arrest him. The Marshal and his party, however, after failing to execute their errand, were ejected from the office by a party composed of Major Tilton, Capt. Cain, Jas. Doty, Q. A. Brooks, R. M. Walker, A. J. Baldwin, Lewis Ensign, Chas. E. Weed and J. L. Mitchell.

Mounted volunteers entered the Town and Judge Lander hearing of their approach, adjourned court, and, in company with Elwood Evans, went to the office of the latter and locked themselves in. Captain Miller, with his men, approached, and finding himself barred, remarked: "I will here add a new letter to the alphabet, let 'er rip," and kicked in the door and arrested the occupants of the room. Evans was released at once. Lander was held in honorable custody until the war was over.

Much was made of this act by the enemies of Governor Stevens to injure him and his administration. A mass meeting was held in Olympia on the public square (now Capita' Park), which was presided over by Judge B. F. Yantis, J. W. Goodell, Secretary, which heartily endorsed the course of the Governor in declaring martial law.

The proclamation revoking martial law was promulgated May 24 and Lander held court in July following. The Governor appeared in court by counsel disclaiming any disrespect to the Court, was fined $50, which he paid, and the incident was closed.

At the election which occurred in July, Thurston County elected the entire Democratic ticket, except Sheriff, which was as follows: Councilman, J. W. Wiley; Representatives,
B. L. Henness, C. B. Baker, J. A. Longmire, Daniel Kiper, G. C. Blankenship, Wm. Rutledge; Auditor, Wm. "Wright; Assessor, T. W. Glascow; Treasurer, G. K. Willard; Coroner, H. D. Morgan. Isaac Hays, on the "Whig ticket, defeated Samuel Coulter. The Democratic ticket was opposed by the Whigs and Free Soldiers.

The Puget Sound Institute, a private school, was organized this year by Rev. J. F. Dillon, a Methodist minister, assisted by his wife.

The end of the year 1856 found confidence restored among the settlers, who had returned to the pursuit of their avocations. Settlers had returned to their claims without fear. The first threshing machine was brought into the County and a cabinet and chair factory was opened in town.

J. M. Swan platted his donation claim adjoining the Sylvester tract, on the East side of the bay, which was known for many years as Swantown.

The Northern Pacific Railroad Company was incorporated by the Legislature of 1857. Under the terms of the charter the road was to commence at one of the passes in the Rocky Mountains between the Territories of Washington and Nebraska and connecting with such road passing through Minnevta and Nebraska as the Company might select, thence to the Sound. The following residents of the Territory were incorporators: I. I. Stevens, C. H. Mason, E. Lander, Geo. Gibbs, B. F. Kendall, Wm. Cock, R. M. Walker. W. W. Miller. W. H. Wallace, Lafayette Balch, M. T. Simmons, Elwood Evans, A. A. Denny, David Phillips, Alex Abernethy, J. P. Keller, Jas. Tilton, E. H. Fowler, S. D. Howe, E. C. Fitzhugh, Walter Crockett, L. H. Davis, C. C. Pagett, Jno. R, Jackson, Seth Catlin, Wm. Strong, Wm. Dillon, Sumner Barker, Wm. Kelly, Ira Patterson, H. D. Huntington, N. Ostrander and B. B. Bishop.

The Legislature also authorized the appointing of a Board of Commissioners with authority to build a bridge across the Western arm of Budd's Inlet. Wm. Cock, Edwin Marsh, W. W. Miller, Wm. McLean, J. K. Kurd, Jos. Cushman, S. W. Percival and Elwood Evans composed the Commission. The report favored a bridge 1803 feet long, with a draw, at an estimated cost of $3000.

At the March term of the County Commissioners the election precincts of Coal Bank, Rabboson's Prairie, Nisqually Prairie and Miami were abandoned and the territory attached to adjoining precincts. This was due, in a great extent, to the depopulating of the country by the Indian War.

Not withstanding the fact that the country showed a falling off in population. Olympia continued to improve and a number of small industries were started in 1857.

The rate of taxation was 3 mills for County purposes.. 1 for court, 1 for territorial, and 2 mills for school purposes.

On July 13 the annual election occurred. The opposition to the Democrats of the year before had united under the name of Republican. The Democrats carried the election, losing only the School Superintendent and Prosecuting Attorney. The following officers were elected: Representatives W. W. Miller, Stephen Guthrie, B. F. Shaw. C. B. Baker, T. W Glascow; Joint Representative, W. M. Morrow; Probate Judge. G. K. Willard; Assessor, J. R. Smith; County Commissioner. James Biles; School Superintendent. G. P. Whitworth; Prose eating Attorney, C. C. Hewitt; Coroner, C. II. Hale.

Governor Stevens was elected delegate to Congress this year, and Fayette McMullan was appointed to fill his place as Governor. McMullan arrived in September and was enthusiastically received.

A contract was awarded the Pacific Mail Steamship Company to carry the mail from San Francisco to Olympia.

The steamer Fairy, owned and operated on Puget Sound by A. B. Rabbeson, plying between Olympia and Steilacoom blew up when leaving the wharf at the latter place, October 15

The year 1858 was distinguished by the Frazier River excitement. Settlers in Washington and Oregon again abandoned their claims in quest of riches, as ten years before California had attracted them.

Olympia. being at the head of tidewater and the only town north of the Columbia, was an outfitting point for the miners. Wells Fargo & Co. established an office in Olympia this year, with T. M. Reed as agent.

The election of 1858 resulted in the choice of the entire Democratic ticket as follows: Councilman, W. W. Miller; Representatives, E. Sylvester, B. L. Henness, Wm. Rutledge J. M. Hawk, Jas. Longmire, Oliver Shead; Prosecuting Attorney, B. P. Anderson; County Commissioner, Jas. Cornell; Treasurer, G. K. Willard; Auditor, Richard Lane; Sheriff. G. C. Blankenship; Assessor, Wm. Martin; Coroner, A. J. Baldwin.

As early as 1858 the matter of a transcontinental railroad began to be actively agitated. A meeting was held in Masonic Hall, September 29th, and Congress urged to make a land grant to the Northern Pacific Railroad. At this meeting Elwood Evans presided.

Fruit growing as an industry began to attract attention and two nurseries were established in the County.

A postal agent visited Olympia in the fall of this year and arranged for the mail steamer Constitution leaving on Monday instead of Friday. Connections were made at San Francisco by which overland mail reached Olympia from St. Louis in 24 days.

In May of 1859 the Commissioners called a special election to vote a 4-mill tax to build a new Courthouse. It was hoped to derive a revenue of $5,000, $2.500 to be applied to existing indebtedness. The proposition was decidedly defeated.

At the election in July the Democrats and Republicans had tickets in the field, the former being successful. For Councilman, Jas. Biles; Representatives. B. L. Henness, G. K Willard. Oliver Shead, A. S. Yantis, Chas. E. Weed, Levi Shelton; County Commissioner, A. J. Chambers; Assessor. Jno. Chambers.

Secretary C. H. Mason died in July of this year, at the age of 29. He was universally loved and respected.

Immigration into Thurston County received a decided impetus at this time and resulted in much encouraging the earlier settlers.

In October General Winfield Scott visited Olympia. he having come to the Northwest in connection with the international boundary question.

At the session of the legislature this year a bill was introduced removing the Capitol from Olympia to Vancouver, which passed the house by a vote of 19 to 9, but met defeat in the Council by one vote.

In the winter of this year, as a result of frequent fires, the first steps toward protection were taken by. the organization of the Alert Hook and Ladder Company—Foreman. C. E. Williams; 1st Assistant, J. L. Head; 2d Assistant, H. D. Morgan; President, T. M. Reed; Secretary, A. J. Moses; Treasurer. W. G. Dunlap.

The Puget Sound University was chartered this year, with the following officers: D. R. Bigelow, Chancellor; G. A. Barnes Vice President; Rev. B. C. Lippincott, President and General Agent.

The town of Olympia was incorporated January 29, 1859. the election to be held in April following. The Act designated G. A. Barnes, T. F. McElroy, Jas. Tilton, Jos. Cushman and Elwood Evans as Trustees. Jos. Cushman was elected President of the Board.

At the April election U. G. Warbass, Geo. A. Barnes Edwin Marsh, W. D. Dunlap and Isaac Lightner were elected Trustees. Geo. A. Barnes was elected President and Richard Lane Clerk of the Board. Dr. Warbass declined to serve and Elwood Evans was appointed.

Contracts were let for cisterns at the intersections of Second, Third and Fourth Streets with Main Street. The old blockhouse on the square was fitted up for a jail.

A reaction from the good times of the previous years was experienced in 1860. The war cloud was looming large in the East, and helped to a degree the depression. The Capitol removal was again agitated in every County, which, together with a heavy assessment, on the previous year's boom valuations, did not help to relieve the feeling of discouragement.

William Wright resigning as County Treasurer, T. F. McElroy was appointed to fill the vacancy.

At this time Olympia was served by four religious denominations : Methodist, Presbyterian, Catholic and Episcopalian.

At the election this year the realignment in political parties began, as a result of the war issues, though the Democrats elected most of their ticket. The following County officers were elected for the ensuing year: Representatives, D. L. Phillips, B. F. Ruth, B. L. Henness, U. G. Warbass, Gilmore Hays and C. H. Hale; Sheriff, Wm. Billings; School Superintendent, R. M. Walker; Auditor, Richard Lane; Treasurer, Win. Wright; Commissioner, S. S. Ford; Probate Judge, R. M. Walker; Assessor, A. W. Sargent.

At the legislative session this year steps were taken toward the erection of a capitol building. A Commissioner was appointed and bids called for. The matter went by default, however, as no satisfactory bids were received.

The Federal census of this year showed a population of 1439 for Thurston County—967 males, 522 females. Real property valuation was £942.990; personal, $586,710.

Henry Winsor was awarded a daily mail contract between Olympia and Monticello.

The Washington Standard was this year started by John Miller Murphy as a Republican paper and the Pioneer and Democrat was sold by Wiley & Furste to James Lodge.

Swantown was connected with the main town by a footbridge early this year.

The following Town Board was elected in 1860: G. A. Barnes. Elwood Evans. W. G. Dunlap. Isaac Lightner, Edwin Marsh. Wm. Billings was elected Marshal and D. R. Bigelow, Police Judge.

When the legislature of 1860-61 convened it was quite apparent that Portland, Oregon, was taking part in Washington Territory's Capital fight, in her own interests. Under the great influence brought to bear the bill for removal to Vancouver passed both houses and was approved. However, it was discovered, after adjournment of the legislature, that the bill had no enacting clause, and, as enrolled, bore no date At a session of the Supreme Court at Olympia, a plea as to the jurisdiction of the Court, in one case, was entered. This brought the question squarely before the Court. The plea was overruled, and Olympia has since remained the Capital.

The legislature attached the south part of Thurston County to Lewis County.

In July the question of Capital location was submitted to the people with the following result: Whole number of votes cast 2315. of which Olympia received 1239, Vancouver 639, Steilacoom 253. Scattering votes went to Port Townsend, Walla Walla and Seattle.

In 1861 the people of Tumwater offered, as a bonus for the location of the County seat at Tumwater, a considerable amount in lumber, shingles, labor and land. C. Crosby and wife filed with the Commissioners a bond in the sum of $4000. conditioned on the delivery of a deed for four blocks of land. At the same session Olympia offered to donate the public square to the County on condition that the County seat remain undisturbed.

The matter being submitted to the people at the annual election following, Olympia received 344. Tumwater 104. West Olympia 4. Up:>n a delivery of a conveyance of the public square to the County a call was made for bids for 200,000 bricks, with which to build a jail.

By the attaching of a portion of Thurston County to Lewis. Commissioner Biles was disqualified from acting, though by failure of his successor to qualify, Mr. Biles presided at the next meeting of the Board, fixing a rate of 7 mills for school, court and Territorial purposes.

The legislature of 1861 had extended the terms of County officers to two years, hence only Representatives to the legislature and County Commissioners were elected this year.

B. F. Ruth, A. S. Yantis, Wm. Cock and Win. McLain were elected Representatives. G. W. Miller and G. W. French were elected Commissioners.

In the Summer of 1861 A. M. Poe established the Overland Press in Olympia.

Rev. B. C. Lippincott this year assumed charge of the public school in Olympia.

At the Spring election Elwood Evans, T. M. Reed, B. Harned, A. Frankee and S. W. Percival were elected Trustees R. Lane was chosen Clerk, Wm. Billings, Marshal, and W. G. Dunlap, Magistrate.

Upon the abandonment of the military post at Steilacoom. which occurred this year, some uneasiness was felt due to the prevalent idea that the absence of troops might encourage the Indians to resume hostilities. But the year closed with bright prospects for the County. Of 53 post offices in the Territory, Thurston County had nine.

Early in 1862 the erection of a Courthouse was agitated. During the discussion of the matter it was discovered that the County had no title to the public square, which it had been reserving for County purposes. It will be recalled that a few years previously, after Tumwater had offered a bonus for the location of the County seat there, that Olympia made a deed to the County for the public square (bounded by Sixth. Seventh, Main and Washington Streets. Later it was found that Edmund Sylvester had donated this to the city for park purposes exclusively, hence the conveyance by the city to the County was invalid.

At the May term of the Commissioners this year they purchased property on the northeast corner of Union and Washington streets, which had formerly been used for school purposes, and awarded a contract to B. Harned to fit up the building for courthouse purposes.

F. M. Sargent resigned as County Treasurer and S. W. Percival was appointed to fill the vacancy.

The election this year resulted in the choice of the following : Joint Councilman, 0. B. McFadden; Representatives, Wm. McLain, T. Hunt, H. Kandle, Jas. Longmire; Sheriff. R. W. Moxlie; Auditor, A. W. Moore; Treasurer, S. W. Percival; Surveyor, Edwin Marsh; Attorney, B. F. Dennison; Commissioner, S. D. Ruddell.

News of the death of Isaac I. Stevens, who was shot in the battle of Chantilly on September 1, was received in Olympic October 18. Proper memorial services were held here.

Up to October of this year $2,210.08 had been raised in Thurston County to aid the Federal cause.

In 1862 B. F. Kendall, a man of marked ability, though combative and vindictive, had become publisher of the Overland Press. In a December issue he charged a man named Horace Howe with burning the buildings of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, in Lewis County. Later Howe met Kendall at the corner of Main and Third Streets. Olympia, and during a controversy struck Kendall with a switch he was holding. Kendall ran, Howe following, for a short distance, then turned and fired four shots at his pursuer, one entering

the left side of Howe, which proved a serious but not fatal wound. Kendall's version, as published in his own paper, gave offense to Howe's friends, and on January 8, 1863, Howe's son entered Kendall's office and asked to see him privately. The two retired to an adjoining room, when a pistol shot was heard and Howe came from the room saying. "I shot him in self defense." The young man was put under bail for his appearance for trial, but he later disappeared. The case was dismissed, when some time afterward the news of Howe's death reached Olympia. The pistol used by the assassin was one belonging to a prominent Territorial official, which gave some color to the belief at the time that Kendall was the victim of a plot among political enemies.

Town Council elected this year: G. A. Barnes, Jos. Gushman, Jas. Tilton, C. E. Williams, W. G. Dunlap. R. Lane, Clerk; H. M. McGee, Magistrate; W. B. Gosnell, Marshal. Dunlap died soon after election and David Phillips succeeded him.

Logging had begun to be engaged in quite extensively in and about Olympia, the output finding ready market at good prices.

In 1863, being an off year, only a Legislative ticket, a Commissioner and Probate Judge were elected. The Unionists defeated the Democrats, with the following result: Repre sentatives, C. Crosby. H. D. McGee, \Vm. McLain; Commissioner, Joseph Gibson; Probate Judge, P. M. Sargent.

At the Town election Jos. Cushman, C. E. Williams, B. Harned, S. Holmes and Wm. Mitchell were elected Trustees; R. Lane, Clerk; P. M. Sargent, Magistrate, and John Sealy. Marshal. W. J. Yeager succeeded the latter later.

The Fall of 1863 John Paul Judson was elected teacher of the public school and was authorized to collect from the scholars, or parents, a sum sufficient to make his salary $80 per month and for an assistant at $120 per quarter, in addition to the $50 allowed by law. The only examination to which teachers were submitted at this time was that made by a committee of the Town Board.

The year 1864 was one of unusual quiet, little transpiring of sufficient importance to chronicle A tri-weekly mail contract direct to Portland was awarded Henry Winsor.

At the election Republicans and Democrats placed tickets in the field. The result was a victory for the Republicans, losing only their candidate for Auditor. Representatives, C. Crosby, S. D. Ruddle, P. M. Rhodes; Sheriff, J. H. Kellett; Commissioner, J. Dunlap; Auditor, R. Lane; Treasurer, S. W. Percival.

The Fourth of July was enthusiastically celebrated this year, at the close of which a Lincoln and Johnson Club was organized, and notwithstanding the fact that the people had no vote for choice of President, the political interest was intense.

A slight flurry was occasioned the latter part of 1864 by the report that gold had been discovered in the Nachez Pass, about 70 miles from Olympia. This little community furnished its quota of gold-seekers, who soon returned to their homes disappointed.

Town officers elected: Trustees, L. D. Durgin, Jesse Chapman, H. M. McGill, A. J. Brown, Edward Giddings; Clerk, R. Lane; Treasurer, Jesse Chapman; Marshal, J. L. Head; Magistrate, F. M. Sargent.

The first Sunday closing ordinance was passed by this Board.

The Committee on Streets was instructed to build a reservoir about a spring on the northeast corner of Main and Fourth streets and establish a pump for the convenience of the general public. This spring, which furnished pure and cold water had long been a village institution, and this corner a gathering place in the evening when alike politics and village gossip were discussed.

On Sunday evening, September 4, 1864, the telegraph was completed to Olympia. The following congratulatory dispatch was sent by the Territorial executive to President Lincoln. It and its reply were the first messages sent between this Territory and the National Capital:

Washington Territory, Executive Office, Olympia, Sept. 5, 1854. To His Excellency Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States:

Washington Territory this day sends her first telegraphic dispatch greeting yourself, Washington City and the whole United States, with our sincere prayers to Almighty God that his richest blessings, both spiritual and temporal, may rest upon and perpetuate the Union of our beloved country, that His own omnipotent power may bless, protect and defend the President of the United States, our brave army and gallant navy, our Congress, and every department of the National government.

For and on behalf of Washington Territory.




Washington, D. C., Sept. 6, 1864. Gov. Pickering, Olympia, W. T.:

Your patriotic dispatch of yesterday received and will be published. A. LINCOLN.

For the first term of school contract was made this year with J. P. Judson; for the two succeeding terms with D. J. Ilubbard as principal.

Olympia celebrated with great patriotic fervor the news which reached the West of the success of the Union armies. The news of Lincoln's assassination was received here, as elsewhere throughout the United States, with sincere grief.

In the Summer of 1865 the wagon road across the Cascade Mountains was completed. This had long been a dream of the pioneers on both sides of the mountains. Thurston County had contributed $800 toward the project and every means was resorted to to help the project. Even the ladies of Olympia had put their hands to the wheel, and on July 4 gave a Calico Ball, turning the proceeds. $120. over to the road project.

At the election this year Thurston County polled 362 votes, Denny (Republican) for delegate to Congress, receiving 220 votes, and Tilton (Democrat) 142.

The entire Republican County ticket was elected as follows: Councilman, S. S. Ford: Representatives, Wm. McLain, G. W. Miller, S. D. Ruddell; Commissioners, A. Tilley, W. S. Parsons; School Superintendent, D. R. Bigelow; Coroner, Robert Frost.

Schuyler Colfax, Speaker of the National House of Representatives, visited the Sound in July of this year and addressed the people of Olympia.

The close of the war found the business affairs of the Sound region in good condition. Demand for lumber was activ,; itt good prices.

Up to this time the male population had far exceeded the female in number. In view of this fact A. S. Mercer conceived the idea of chartering a vessel and bringing to the Sound » large number of women. On receiving notice from Mercer that the ship Continental was s'.ion to leave Boston, with a large passenger list, Olympia appointed a committee, consisting of Klwood Evans and wife, D. R. Bigelow and wife. T. F. McElroy and wife, T. M. Reed and wife, Francis Henry and wife, George Barnes and wife. James Biles and wife, Henry Winsor and wife. to receive and provide for the newcomers. Homes in the County were found for 80, of the 300 that arrived.

Panic struck the lumber industry, owing to a decision of a California Court that the export of lumber and spars cut from U. S. lands must be taxed $2.50 per M.

Tax levy this year.- Four mills for County, 2 for School and 2 1/2 mills for road purposes.

Owing to a lack of funds no public schools opened this year. For the purpose of running a private school. Misses Biddings and Slocum leased the school house.

Town Trustees elected this year: Chas. "Weed, U. E. Hicks. .F. R. Wood, B. F. Yantis, Robt. Frost. U. E. Hicks was elected Treasurer; R. Lane, Clerk; W. J. Yeager. Marshal.

This Board levied a tax for school purposes of 1 1.2 mills and purchased a hand fire engine.

Three tickets were put in the field at the election in 1866. The split in the Republican party was due to the disaffection between President Johnson and Congress.

Change in the Republican party resulted in the election of the Democratic ticket with the exception of Henness for Sheriff. The following County officers were elected: Representatives, Jas. Longmire, B. F. Ruth, F. Henry; Sheriff. J. H. Kellett; Auditor, P. F. Turpin; Probate Judge, C. P. Judson; Treasurer, I. Lightner; Commissioner, R. Waddell.

The faithful old town pump gave away to a water system that was installed this year.

The County Commissioners appropriated $800 toward the Swantown bridge, and provided bounties for the following animals: Wildcat $1, Coyote $2.50, "Wolf $4, Cougar $5, grown Bear $2, Cub $1.

S. S. Ford, Sr., who was a joint Councilman with Lewis County, died this year. In the election to fill the vacancy Wm. H. Mitchell defeated Geo. A. Barnes by 23 votes.

On December 20, 1866, the stores at the lower end of Main Street, were flooded by the highest tide that had been known up to that time.

Columbia Fire Engine Company was organized this year and formally took possession of the new hand engine. A. J. Baldwin was foreman.

Town Trustees elected this year: Geo. A. Barnes, T. M. Reed, Isaac Lightner, B. Harned, A. J. Baldwin. T. M. Reed was elected Treasurer and Richard Lane, Clerk.

L. P. Venen was this year elected principal of the district school.

An exciting County election occurred in 1861 and resulted in the selection of the following officers: Wm. McLane, Councilman; F. Henry, Ira Ward and J. E. Baker, Representatives; J. H. Kellett, Sheriff; A. W. Cairnes, J. M. Shotwell and Jas. Dunlap, Commissioners; P. Turpin, Auditor; I. Lightnerf Treasurer; D. R. Bigelow, Probate Judge and School Superintendent.

Jas. Longmire contested the election of McLane for the Council, which was again referred to the people, and Mr. Longmire lost.

In November of this year E. T. Gunn and J. N. Gale, commenced the publication of the Olympia Transcript, as a Republican paper, the Washington Standard having been drawn into the Democratic field during the political evolutions now taking place. The Pacific Tribune was also established by Chas. Prosch & Sons.

The Town Trustees serving this year were: F. Henry, G. A. Barnes, Albert Robb, J. G. Parker, J. M. Hawk.

On November 15 occurred the death of M. T. Simmons, who lived in Lewis County. His death was mourned as a great loss. He had been identified with the history of the Sound country from the first, and was highly regarded as an upright citizen.

A contract was awarded to E. L. Finch to build a new Swantown bridge.

Coal Bank precinct was re-created this year, the population of the southeast corner of the County having increased to justify it.

The session of the Legislature of 1868 was a most acrimonious one. Personal altercations within and without the legislative halls made a very lively town out of the Capital, then a village of 500. So bitter was the feeling that personal encounters were frequent in the saloons and about the town of Olympia.

The Marshville bridge to the Westside was completed this year.

L. P. Venen was elected principal of the district school, assisted by Misses Slocum and Mary O'Neal as assistants.

Town Trustees were elected to serve for the year as follows: 6. K. Barnes, Wm. Mitchell, C. E. Williams, Benj. Harned, C. H. Hale. Richard Lane was elected Clerk and Mr. Williams, Treasurer.

The County Commissioners this year discovered that they were being systematically robbed by the wily Indians, who were taking animal scalps wherever they might be found and cashing in over Thurston County's counter. The practice was stopped by rigid regulations.

At the August term the County Commissioners ordered the Auditor to advertise for bids for a two-story jail.

The historical old blockhouse on the corner of the public square was razed this year and the lumber in it put upon the streets.

At the organization of the Territory there was established at Olympia as the Capital a Territorial library, for which Congress had made an appropriation. But the first town library was established in 1869. On January 1, 1869, D. B. Finch, a wealthy steamboat man, commanding the old Eliza Anderson, running between Olympia and Victoria, donated to the Lodge of Good Templars of this city what was then known as the Olympic building on the site now occupied by the K. of P. hall, on condition that the Lodge would maintain a library and free reading room. The conditions were complied with and the first town library opened July 19th. The first librarian to take charge was John B. Allen, a young attorney just from Minnesota, who was one of the first U. S. Senators from the State of Washington. Mr. Allen, telling his early experiences, related that the Lodge, having defaulted in part of his salary, he was given an old silver watch, in lieu thereof. In a trip down the bay later Mr. Allen met with an accident and the old watch went to the bottom of Budd's Inlet. Thus, the librarian was illy recompensed for his labors.

As an indication of real estate values it might be stated that in February. 1869, C. J. Allen sold five acres of land adjoining the Capital grounds for $5000. This is now known as the Mottman addition.

Early this year Wm. Billings took the contract to build a timber jail 16x20, two cells, on the County property, Union and Washington Streets.

In August 1869-Rabbeson & Clark were awarded a contract to build a Town Hall on Fourth Street, between Washington and Franklin. The building was completed November 26, and dedicated by ball and supper. The ground floor rooms were occupied for municipal purposes, while a hall, with ante room above, was utilized for many years as ball room, theater, etc. With other relics of the past the Town Hall, so familiar to the "old tinier." is no more, as such, but has passed into private hands, and was recently torn down.

In the Spring of 1839 the Columbia River and Puget Sound Railroad Company desired a terminus on Puget Sound. A committee, composed of 0. B. McPadden, C. II. Hale, Joseph Cushman, S. D. Howe, James Biles, G. W. French, H. Hartley, Clanrick Crosby, A. J. Chambers, W. H. Mitchell, C. C. Hewitt, P. D. Moore and J. II. Cleale were appointed to solicit for donations of land to induce the company to locate its terminus on Budd's Inlet.

Society at the Capital city was revolutionized after the inauguration of President Grant. As many of the inhabitants of the small community were Federal employees, the new appointments made many changes.

At the County election in 1869 the full Republican ticket was elected, as follows: Councilman, J. Scammons; Representatives, L. A. Treen, W. Packwood; Commissioners, G. A. Barnes. C. Crosby, S. Hodgdon; Sheriff, Wm. Billings; Treasurer, B.

Bettman; Auditor, A. A. Philips; Probate Judge, D. R. Bigelow ; School Superintendent, D. R. Bigelow; Surveyor, F. W. Brown; Coroner, C. Wood.

Thurston County had increased her assessed valuation in the last year by $123,267 and was $911,129.

The Commissioners appropriated $1000 for a bridge across the inlet to Tumwater. This amount was increased by private subscription to $3266.

The growth of the town now made an imperative demand for a definite location of streets and the Council so ordered. Cattle were restrained from running at large and a tax of $2.50 was put upon each dog.

There was considerable building activity this year and saw mills were kept busy meeting the demand.

The first bank building to be erected in the Territory of Washington was commenced this year by G. A. Barnes, who for several years conducted a banking business here.

The Town Trustees this year were G. A. Barnes, F. Henry, S. W. Percival, R. Frost, J. M. Murphy; S. W. Percival, Treasurer; R. Lane, Clerk.

Jacob Hoover was principal of the public school this year, assisted by Mary O'Neil. Mr. Hoover later practice;! law, an.l became a wealthy capitalist of Spokane.

The Federal census of 1870 showed a population of 1203 for Olympia and 2246 in the County. Tumwater contained 206. By way of comparison it may here be stated that at this time Seattle contained 1142, with 2164 inhabitants in King County. Olympia had a public school of 75 pupils, taught by two teachers; fully 75 more pupils were taught in private schools.

March 1, 1870, the town paid the County $1333 for the public square, which the town had deeded to the County in the early days, when the County seat question was agitated. Although the deed then given was invalid this settlement was reached, and the amount paid to assist the County in building a Courthouse at the corner of Washington and Sixth Streets.

At the Town election in April the following Trustees were elected: F. Henry, A. A. Phillips, B. Bettman, C. C. Hewitt, Levi Shelton.

At the County election the following were chosen: Councilman, L. P. Smith; Representatives, D. R. Bigelow, B. L.

Brewer, —Campbell; Sheriff, Wm. Billings; Auditor, A. A. Phillips; Commissioners, Wm. McLane, Ira Ward. Wm. James; Treasurer, L. G. Abbott; Assessor, W. M. White; Probate Judge, A. R. Elder; School Superintendent, D. R. Bigelow.

C. Etheridge this year commenced operating a sash and door factory between Second and Third streets, near the West end of Swantown bridge.

The prospects of the location of the Northern Pacific Railroad terminus at Olympia was the cause of considerable real estate activity in 1870. In April T. I. McKenny and Geo. Barnes platted the town site of Puget City, this County. Later the plat was vacated.

C. B. Mann was chosen principal of the district school this year.

A franchise was granted to the Washington Water Pipe Manufacturing Company to lay pipe and supply the inhabitants with water.

Wm. H. Cushman was elected Town Clerk to fill a vacancy.

The Barnes Hook & Ladder Company was organized to supplement the Fire Company.

In September of this year, Olympia and vicinity was visited by the most violent earthquake ever experienced here before or since. The fact that the prevailing style of architecture was one and two-story frame buildings saved immense damage.

This year the citizens of Olympia experienced their first disappointment relative to the location of the Northern Pacific terminus, which it was now reported would be located on the Columbia River. A committee, headed by E. P. Ferry, was appointed to confer with the railroad officials as to the best terms on which railroad connection could be had at Olympia. Little was gained by the conference.

In December, 1870, Marshall Blinn, C. II. Hale. A. J. Miller, James Pattison, E. Marsh, G. A. Barnes, W. H. Mitchell, C. Crosby, J. M. Murphy and E. P. Ferry organized a Company with a capital of $400,000 capital to construct a branch of the Northern Pacific Railroad. It petitioned for 1337 acres of the mud flats conditioned that the Des Chutes channel should be opened. It was the intention to obtain possession of these and offer them to the Northern Pacific Railroad Company on condition that their terminus be located on Budd's Inlet, but the petition did not receive favorable action by Congress,

In 1871 the location of the Northern Pacific Railroad terminus was the paramount question.

The Northern Pacific Railroad Company had been apprised of the effort to secure the tide lands and present them to the Railroad Company. General Sprague of the Company replied by sending blanks necessary for making the donation

The Branch Railroad Company recommended that the citizen property owners on Budd's Inlet donate one-half their holdings to the Northern Pacific on condition that it would build and operate a railroad into Olympia before January 1. 1875, and locate the road before May 1, 1872. This most remarkable proposition did not meet with great favor with all classes, many feeling that if the Company desired to come here they would come anyway; if not, no reasonable bonus would be an inducement.

Railroad contractors were working during the Summer in the Cowlitz Valley, and expected to have 25 miles built from Kalama by October 2, and connection made with the Sound by 1872.

By November, 1871, the road was within 15 miles of Olympia. and still the matter of terminus was an uncertainty. On Christmas day Olympia citizens experienced great relief when a communication was received over the signatures of Goodwin and Sprague by Marshal Blinn accepting the proposition of the Branch Railroad Company, stating that the Northern Pacific Company would comply with the first condition by causing a railroad to be located before May 1 next, connecting the Columbia river with a point on the navigable waters of Budd's Inlet. They also asked a right of way from Bush Prairie. This seemed to the expectant citizens of Olympia that Budd's Inlet was to be the "Western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad. To many then living this seemed a realization of their fondest hopes which they had entertained since they emigrated here in the early '50's. Their real estate holdings were to assume a value that meant to them a competence. And, indeed, on this vague promise real estate did go to fabulous values, but little changed hands.

Building in and about Olympia was reasonably active, and considerable progress was made along the line of general improvement. At Tumwater D. Barnhart had installed a furniture factory, and Leonard & Cooper were also operating a sash and door factory at the same place. To add to the general tension of expectancy, the usual report of discovery of gold in the Black Hills became current.

In December, Geo. A. Barnes, Ben Harned and A. H. Stelle were elected School Directors. N. Crosby Clerk.

A farmers' organization was effected this year for the purpose of the advancement of agricultural interests, though it was short lived.

On the death of Wm. James, County Commissioner, G. W. French was chosen to fill the vacancy.

In this year Mrs. Case and Miss Churchill, two Eastern ladies, leased the old Court House on Union and Washington Streets and started a Young Ladies' Seminary.

During the Summer of 1871, a newspaper plant was brought from Port Townsend and the Puget Sound Courier was started. This was the organ of the Federal officeholders.

Town Trustees this year: F. Henry, S. W. Percival, John M. Murphy, A. H. Steele.

Mr. Boynton, assisted by Miss Mary O'Neil and Mary Post taught the public school.

Owing to the still prevailing hope that Olympia would be H railroad terminus, the year 1872 opened up with much activity. Streets and bridges were improved, a fire alarm system installed; while building was active rents were very high.

The fact that a man named Ira Bradley Thomas was in Olympia buying up land seemed significant. In fact, he had secured title to several thousand acres on the East side of the inlet. "While still in pursuit of his business he died suddenly

In this year occurred the revolt against the so-called Federal ring. Selucius Garfield, a man of splendid ability and a magnificent orator, on the Republican ticket, was defeated for Delegate to Congress by 0. B. McFadden, on the Peoples' ticket.

The full People's Party County ticket was elected as follows: Councilman, Wm. McLain; Representatives. B. F. Yan- tis. Ira Ward, Frank Henry; Auditor, A. A. Phillips; Sheriff,
Wm. Billings; Treasurer, W. J. Grainger; Surveyor, D. S. B. Henry; School Superintendent, C. A. Huntington; Pro- bate Judge, J. M. Lowe; Coroner, I. V. Mossman.

A vote on the question for a State Constitution was defeated, 54 to 141.

The Burmeister building, on Third and Main, was built this year.

At the municipal election the following officers were elected: Mayor, W. W. Miller; Councilmen—First Ward, A. J. Burr, B. Bettman; Second Ward, M. Blinn, T. F. McElroy; Third Ward, J. S. Dobbins, D. S. B. Henry; A. A. Phillips, Clerk; K. W. Ryerson, Treasurer; A. R. Elder, Magistrate; J. J. Westbrook, Marshal.

On December 14th, of this year, Olympia and vicinity was visited by a severe earthquake, resulting in little actual damage.

As the year 1872 drew to a close it became evident, even to the most sanguine, that the Northern Pacific Railroad Company was not going to keep faith with Olympia, but proposed to locate the terminus of its road at a point lower down on the Sound. As the time had arrived for some evidence of good faith. Marshal Blinn wrote to Messrs. Goodwin and Sprague, asking when the line would be located. They replied: c'The line of railroad runs to the East side of Budd's Inlet to the Billings or Wylie donation claim, sections 25, 26, 35, 36, township 19, range 2 West, and a point will be selected on one of these claims for a freight and passenger depot, where said line will terminate."

This restored confidence for a time until it was evident the road was being continued through Yelm toward Tacoma

The following statement may serve to throw some light on the. inside history of the location of the terminus of the first transcontinental line to reach the Northwest.

Included in the directorate of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company were men who composed the Lake Superior and Puget Sound Land Company. They were sufficiently strong in the railroad company to dictate its policy. The railroad company was not interested in town sites; the land company was—so they had sent a man West to secure title to lands at the prospective terminus. That man was Ira Bradley Thomas, before mentioned. After having secured title to large tracts on Budd's Inlet he died. Thus, considering the time that would be consumed in probating the estate of Mr. Thomas, with the law's delays, this land was withdrawn from the market indefinitely. Time was all in all. The result was that in order to realize their financial expectations the Lake Superior & Puget Sound Land Company secured lands a few miles from Old Tacoma. and went into the Northern Pacific directorate and located the terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad.

On what seeming insignificant circumstances do great things depend. Had Ira Bradley Thomas lived but even a short time longer, in all probability Olympia would have been the terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and the site of the present City of Tacoma still a wilderness.

Thus, briefly sketched, is the history of Thurston County. First, as a part of the Territory of Oregon, and later an integral part of the fast-growing Territory of Washington. It was the intention of the compiler of this volume to trace merely the pioneer history of the County. The line of demarkation between early history and the later was arbitrarily fixed by the Society of Thurston County Pioneers, which made eligible those who had taken up residence in the County before 1872. Though the people who came to Washington Territory in the early 70's seem as "Che Chacos" to the pioneers of '49 or '50, yet the line as fixed by the Society seems a conservative placing of time to mark the difference between old and new. The laying of the foundation, by a few sturdy pioneers, of a great commonwealth to be, who, after a life full of privation and hardship, were laid to rest in the soil of the new country, giving way to a young and sturdy race of new comers, no longer "pioneers" but "early settlers," until the year 1872 arrived, which closed the door, and all later arrivals must fall under the head of "Che Chacos."

From 1873 to 1889. that period during which Washington remained a Territory, Olympia and Thurston County made slow progress. The location of a railroad terminus at Tacoma detracted greatly from the head of the Sound. Seattle made a start and has experienced a phenomenal growth, which in a way, too, affected Olympia.

However, since admission of the Territory as a State in 1889, Olympia and Thurston County has experienced a steady improvement. The ability to command some attention in Congress, has resulted in appropriations for the improvement of the harbor, which has always been a deterring influence. Notwithstanding frequent attempts to move the Capitol, it seems at last a fixture, the State's investments here precluding the possibility of a change. But what is of greater importance, the difficulties of transportation in and out of Olympia have to a great extent been, or are being, overcome. The Northern Pacific, after years of neglect, saw a territory in the Southwest that could no longer be ignored and the Tacoma and Grays Harbor branch of that road resulted. At this writing the Oregon & Washington Railway is making preparations to connect the Capital City with their line, with further possibilities of transcontinental connection in the near future.

Substantial fireproof buildings are taking the place of the old frames, paved streets are being actively extended and u spirit of enterprise has been the result of the advent of the new blood that is to take up the fight where the pioneer, after a hard fought battle, for which his successors delight to honor his memory, laid down his burden and entered into his rest.

Source: Early History of Thurston County, Washington By Georgiana Mitchell Blankenship

provided by Barbara Ziegenmeyer of Geneology Trails